examines various biological areas that impact training responsiveness and sporting performance. These include soft tissue and bone formation and remodelling; inflammation; oxidative stress; oxygenation influenced by blood flow and respiration; energy and fuel production; and metabolism during exercise. Knowledge of gene variations that influence these key biological areas can be used to exploit any genetic advantages and identify any weaknesses that need to be supported, through diet and the training strategies.
Suitable for the recreational athlete and the elite performance athlete, it provides information to optimise:
The DNA Sport Test Report provides:
DNA Sport provides insight to the potential for sporting performance and trainability, optimal exercise selection, recovery strategies, injury potential, and exercise for weight management. The test is suitable for the elite performance athlete as well as the recreational athlete looking to maximise his or her training results and reach peak levels of conditioning. The profile tests for genes in three categories that relate to sporting performance: Power and Endurance; Tendon Pathology; and Recovery.
Genes have now been coded and studied that can tell an athlete or their coach whether they should be training towards a power or an endurance sport, how quickly they are likely to recover from training sessions, and their genetic susceptibility for tendon and other soft tissue injuries. DNA Sport utilizes these genes and the information they contain to offer a quantitative assessment of the athletes’ physiological disposition towards certain activities.
The DNA Sport profile tests for genes in three categories that relate to sporting performance: 1) Power and Endurance, 2) Tendon Pathology and 3) Recovery.
1) The Power and Endurance section tests genes that code for physiological factors such as circulation, blood pressure control, strength, cardio-pulmonary capacity, mitochondrial synthesis, muscle fibre type specialisation, muscle fibre hypertrophy, cardiac output, muscle metabolism and adaptability to training regimes.
2) The Tendon Pathology section examines genes that are involved in the structural integrity of soft tissues in the body. Certain polymorphisms implicate predisposition to tendon injuries (including Achilles Tendonitis), plus ligament, cartilage and bone pathology.
3) The Recovery genes are the best example within this genetic panel of the need to integrate training and nutritional advice when supporting an athlete’s health and fitness. The featured genes consider disposition to inflammation and free radical stress within the body, which may imply the need for more focused nutritional support, along with extended recoveries between training repetitions and sessions.
Genetic markers for athletic fitness and performance
Power and endurance:
Alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3)
Bradykinin Receptor B2 (BDRKB2)
Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor (ADRB2)
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor (TRHR)
Nuclear Respiratory Factor 2 (NRF-2)
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Coactivator-1 (PPARGC1A)
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Alpha (PPARA)
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
Vitamin D Receptor (VDR)
Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE)
Growth Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5)
Collagen 5 Alpha-1 (COL5A1)
Collagen 1 Alpha-1 (COL1A1)
Interleukin 6 Receptor (IL-6R)
C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2)
Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF)
Summary of Genes and Associations:
Training & Nutrition Action
Genetic Variants Associated with Power and Endurance
AGT is a precursor of angiotensin, which causesvasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. The C allele has been associated with power elite sports performance, but the T allele is not associated with endurance performance.
The ACTN3 actinin is a major structural component of the Z line in Type II (fast) skeletal muscles. The R allele is found more in Sprint and Power sports people compared to the X (null) allele.
Bradykinin is an endothelial dependent vasodilator. The -9 SNP increases BDRKB2 expression and improves the efficiency of muscular contraction. The +9 SNP is associated with more thirst and fluid loss.
Beta 2 Adrenergic receptors help regulate endocrine and central nervous functions. Adrenaline supports blood glucose levels during prolonged exercise. The Arg SNP is better for endurance, but may have delayed recovery after exercise.
Beta 2 Adrenergic receptors help regulate endocrine and central nervous functions. Adrenaline supports blood glucose levels during prolonged exercise. Gln more associated with endurance and fat burning; Glu with power and muscle growth.
The Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor affects metabolic rate, helps catecholamines to mobilise fuels during exercise and is involved in growth. The GG SNP on rs16892496 and TT on rs7832552, are favourable for increased lean body mass and therefore strength.
The NRF-2 protein improves respiratory capacity and increases the rate of ATP production during exercise. The very rare G allele is associated with greater improvements in VO2max: around 50 to 60% better results.
PPARGC1A is involved in energy homeostasis and muscle fibre type conversion towards type I fibres. The Ser allele is associated with lower levels of PPARGC1A and reduced aerobic improvements with exercise training.
PPAR-alpha promotes catabolism of fatty acids, especially during carbohydrate deprivation. G allele is associated with type I muscle fibre specialisation and endurance; the C allele has been associated more with power sports.